Acropora is a genus of small polyp stony coral in the phylum cnidaria. Wallace released her revision and catalogue of worldwide staghorn corals acropora and isopora scleractinia. Populations of the shallowwater caribbean elkhorn coral, acropora palmata, are being decimated by white pox disease, with losses of living cover in the florida keys typically in excess of 70%. Colony not showing disease, but located in the vicinity of colonies with external signs of presumed white band disease.
An inventory of projects related to implementation of the recovery plan for staghorn coral acropora cervicornis and elkhorn coral a. Feb 05, 2018 these are 4 fragments of acropora palmata elkhorn coral of the same genotype refusing to become one colony again. Pdf recovery of acropora palmata from its currently imperiled status. While every effort has been made to provide the most reliable and uptodate information available, ultimate legal requirements with respect to species are contained in. The worksheet recovery plan actions lists the actions from the recovery plan and their action number. Hybridization and the evolution of reef coral diversity. Genotypic inventory of acropora palmata elkhorn coral. While a colony can persist for centuries, individual coral polyps usually live for 2 to 3 years. Pdf genotypic inventory of acropora palmata elkhorn coral. Nope, that is a nice montipora hirsuta, not the critically endangered acropora palmata elkhorn coral this is the coral im talking about. Acropora palmata definition of acropora palmata by the. Sparse thickets of acropora palmata and small colonies of porites astreoides thrive among large amounts of coral rubble made up mostly by fragmented colonies of a. Acropora palmata elkhorn coral university of the west.
Stabilization of fragments to enhance asexual recruitment. Hundreds of coral species coexist sympatrically on reefs, reproducing in massspawning events where hybridization appears common. Whereas the effect of oa on the calcification of adult reef corals is increasingly well documented, effects on early life history stages are largely unknown. Elkhorn coral is a simultaneous hermaphrodite, meaning each colony produces both eggs and sperm, but usually does not selffertilize. Acropora palmata grows in an area ranging from southern florida. Results show that 61% of the total occurrence area of acropora palmata is located in the highest protected zones, whereas 29. This study compared the utilization of coral mucus by coralassociated commensal bacteria photobacterium mandapamensis and halomonas meridiana and by opportunistic. Initially this great document was behind a paywall but now the whole 250 page document is available online as a completely free download. Elkhorn coral can form dense groups called thickets in very shallow water. They are fastgrowing, branching species that tend to be particularity vulnerable to threats such as temperature extremes, storms and disease. Nov 23, 2010 ocean acidification oa refers to the ongoing decline in oceanic ph resulting from the uptake of atmospheric co2.
The combination of physical stress and disease has resulted in the decline of corals and coral reefs throughout the caribbean 1, 2. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the creative commons cc0 license. Acroporidae in the museum of tropical queensland pdf. This document provides a standard field protocol for screening disease resistance 32 traits in the imperiled coral species, acropora palmata and acropora cervicornis, particularly 33 genotypes under nursery culture for population enhancement. Branches of living colonies are light brown to yellowgold with whitish tips. The elkhorn coral acropora palmata, once dominant on shallow reef sites, where it provides structure and functions as wave breakers, is critically. Acropora palmata grows in an area ranging from southern florida and throughout the bahamas and caribbean. Elkhorn coral sexually reproduces once per year after the full moon in late summer by broadcast spawning eggs and sperm into the water column. Other articles where acropora palmata is discussed. It really does look like the horns of an elk branching out from a base. Acropora species are some of the major reef corals responsible for building the immense calcium carbonate substructure that supports the thin living skin of a reef.
Together with hurricanes wbd reduced live elkhorn coral coverage by probably. Jun 25, 2002 populations of the shallowwater caribbean elkhorn coral, acropora palmata, are being decimated by white pox disease, with losses of living cover in the florida keys typically in excess of 70%. Acropora palmata genets are characterized by between and within genet variation in genome methylation. Recovery plan for elkhorn acropora palmata and staghorn. The evolutionary relationships depicted in the coral phylogeny are redrawn based on the phylogenomic analysis by bhattacharya et al. Identifying acropora corals in the caribbean scuba diver life. The experiments were conducted in larval chambers placed on the reef to ensure that coral larvae were exposed to natural light, seawater temperature and some water flow. Owing in part to the lack of a rapid and simple diagnostic test, there have been few systematic assessments of the prevalence of acroporid serratiosis caused specifically by serratia marcescens versus general wpd signs. The bulletin of marine science is dedicated to the dissemination of high quality research from the worlds oceans. Elkhorn coral reaches reproductive maturity at about 2 square feet.
Distribution and abundance of elkhorn coral, acropora palmata. Elkhorn coral acropora palmata is a prominent caribbean reefbuilding coral, although as of the 2010s populations were still recovering from white band disease outbreak. Mounting experimental evidence suggests that oa will have negative consequences for a variety of marine organisms. The etiology of white pox, a lethal disease of the. Elkhorn coral is one of the most important corals in the caribbean. How opportunistic pathogens establish on coral surfaces, interact with native microbiota, and cause disease is not yet clear. Central time 866 8747639 855 2258086 if you should have trouble with the first number, please use the second one. Fused staghorn coral acropora prolifera is the most difficult acropora species to identify in the caribbean. Systematic analysis of white pox disease in acropora. Itis taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. This species is structurally complex with many large branches.
This study shows spatial distribution of colonies, thickets and live fragments of these species in the fore reefs. Acropora palmata, the elkhorn coral, is the quintessential caribbean coral reef species. Shifting white pox aetiologies affecting acropora palmata. Elkhorn corals branches can increase in length as fast as 24 inches per year. Acropora palmata how can we compare the past to understand. Utilization of mucus from the coral acropora palmata by the. Aug 22, 2011 nope, that is a nice montipora hirsuta, not the critically endangered acropora palmata elkhorn coral this is the coral im talking about. Their combined loss has transformed caribbean reefs from highcoral, lowalgae ecosystems to highalgae, lowcoral ones. The roots and peat banks behind them have a thick cover of. Jan 01, 2018 acropora palmata was once a dominant species in the caribbean but unfortunately, it has fallen between 90 and 95 percent in abundance since 1980. Consolidated checklist of hard corals of the genus acropora oken, 1815 scleractinia. Dec 19, 2016 the elkhorn coral acropora palmata, once dominant on shallow reef sites, where it provides structure and functions as wave breakers, is critically endangered today. Restoration of critically endangered elkhorn coral acropora. This page was last edited on 16 november 2016, at 20.
Restoration of critically endangered elkhorn coral. The impact of macroalgae and cyanobacteria on larval. Together with hurricanes wbd reduced live elkhorn coral coverage by. Shifting white pox aetiologies affecting acropora palmata in. Fisheries list acropora palmata, acropora cervicornis, and acropora prolifera as threatened. Acropora palmata is a primary element for coral reef formation in shallow areas of the caribbean sea 27. These branches create habitats for many other reef species, such as lobsters, parrotfish, snapper shrimps and. The most popular versions among the software users are 1. Acropora incorporates some of the latest advances in voxel modeling technology. Distribution and status of living colonies of acropora spp. Ocean acidification oa refers to the ongoing decline in oceanic ph resulting from the uptake of atmospheric co2. Acropora palmata, the majestic and endangered elkhorn coral. White pox disease wpd affects the threatened elkhorn coral, acropora palmata.
Hosted by the usgs core science analytics and synthesis. Elkhorn coral reaches its maximum size at 10 to 12 years old. Wbd was first documented at buck island reef national monument birnm. This species was once so abundant that entire regions of the reef were called the palmata zone and it was important to know where the palmata zones were, because their sturdy branches easily sank ships. It, along with staghorn coral and star corals boulder, lobed, and mountainous, built caribbean coral reefs over the last 5,000 years. In 2005, elkhorn coral was proposed for listing as threatened under the us endangered species act. Acropora palmata rtla 5091 collected from tague bay, us virgin islands on 28 july 1981 by esther peters. A large reefbuilding coral of the caribbean sea and nearby waters, having broad flat branches that resemble an elks antlers. Acropora palmata may grow to a height of 3m in reef areas that are exposed to strong waves fig. Pdf genotypic inventory of acropora palmata elkhorn. Pdf the elkhorn coral acropora palmata is coming back to the. In recent years, diseases of corals caused by opportunistic pathogens have become widespread. This hermaphrodite species synchronously release bundles with both gametes in an annual. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page.
Acropora palmata elkhorn coral acropora palmata is a fast growing large branching coral figure 1 up to four meters in diameter and two meters in height, with thick, sturdy, antler like branches. Page designed through the cooperative efforts of interagency itis teams. Acropora palmata colony survival following contemporary wpx outbreaks is likely aided by regeneration of tissue over areas denuded by infection. In the florida keys and elsewhere, the iconic elkhorn coral acropora palmata has experienced precipitous declines due in part to white pox disease wpd 3, 4. Our software library provides a free download of acropora 1. The aim was to produce a baseline study for this species which combined population genetics with demographic data. In the caribbean, dna sequence data from all three sympatric acropora corals show that mass spawning does not erode species barriers. Six reefs in the florida keys were surveyed between 2011 and 20 to determine the disease. Acropora palmata synonyms, acropora palmata pronunciation, acropora palmata translation, english dictionary definition of acropora palmata. Ocean acidification compromises recruitment success of the. The latter type of ecosystems support far fewer species. Acropora is a procedural voxel modeler for creating complex, organic mesh topologies that are useful for all types of 3d modeling applications. The etiology of white pox, a lethal disease of the caribbean elkhorn. These are 4 fragments of acropora palmata elkhorn coral of the same genotype refusing to become one colony again.
Williams southeast fisheries science center report prbd201408 foreword. Our antivirus scan shows that this download is virus free. What drives phenotypic divergence among coral clonemates. Tubular pf different lengths, next to each other and of the same size. In florida, the spread of white pox fits the contagion model, with. Media in category acropora palmata the following 27 files are in this category, out of 27 total. Commonly, this programs installer has the following filename. Corals selection guide front page acropora sale page ordering acropora our toll free phone numbers for calls within the u. A standard field protocol for testing relative disease. Since then, a lack of significant recovery has prompted rehabilitation initiatives throughout the caribbean.
Recovery plan elkhorn coral acropora palmata and staghorn coral. Phylogeny of corals with genomic and transcriptomic resources used in this study a with images of the two focal species, acropora palmata b and acropora cervicornis c. Genomic variants among threatened acropora corals g3. The extensive regional loss of the caribbean coral acropora palmata. This study compared the utilization of coral mucus by coralassociated commensal bacteria photobacterium mandapamensis and halomonas meridiana and. Here, we report the first successful outplanting and longterm. Corallivorous snail feeding is a common source of tissue loss for the threatened coral, acropora palmata, accounting for roughly onequarter of tissue loss in monitored study plots over seven years. Acropora palmata was once a dominant species in the caribbean but unfortunately, it has fallen between 90 and 95 percent in abundance since 1980. Strategy to evaluate acropora palmata outplant design margaret w. Systematic analysis of white pox disease in acropora palmata. Strategy to evaluate acropora palmata outplant design.
Some of the stilt roots are anchored, and some hang free as they have not yet reached the bottom. Hostrelated morphological variation of dwellings inhabited by the crab domecia acanthophora in the corals acropora palmata and millepora complanata southern caribbean. Some of its species are known as table coral, elkhorn coral, and staghorn coral. Pdf genotypic variation influences reproductive success.
Distribution and abundance of elkhorn coral, acropora. Miller2 abstract historically, fragmentation has been a successful life history strategy in acropora palmata. Settlement in the presence of different algae and cyanobacteria was tested for three coral species, acropora palmata, acropora cervicornis and pseudodiploria strigosa. Of all of the coral species acropora palmata or elkhorn coral is one of the easiest to identify. Molecular processes and hub genes of acropora palmata in response to thermal stress and bleaching. Below this zone, the slope dips steeply to a depth of nearly 10 m. Elkhorn coral acropora palmata populations provide important ecological functions on shallow caribbean reefs, many of which were lost when a disease reduced their abundance by more than 95% beginning in the mid1970s. Snorkeling was used to perform the direct observations. This file has been identified as being free of known restrictions under law, including all. However, in areas where the population is sparse and degraded, the survivorship. Genotypic inventory of acropora palmata elkhorn coral populations in south florida genotypic inventory of acropora palmata elkhorn coral populations in south floridathe elkhorn coral, acropora palmata, is the iconic caribbean reef building species, and the key constructor of protective reef crest and spur structure.
Acropora palmata representativeness and local threats distribution. This document outlines tractable knowledge gaps in applying coral nurseryrestocking practices developed rapidly for staghorn coral in its sister species, elkhorn coral. Utilization of mucus from the coral acropora palmata by. I took this video in different places on the north coast of puerto rico.
All aspects of marine science are treated by the bulletin of marine science, including papers in marine biology, biological oceanography, fisheries, marine affairs, applied marine physics, marine geology and geophysics, marine and atmospheric chemistry, and meteorology and. This species can also be found as part of the intestinal microbiota of other animal species and as a freeliving microbe. Acropora palmata elkhorn coral fusion test 1 youtube. The etiology of white pox, a lethal disease of the caribbean.
Molecular processes and hub genes of acropora palmata in. Successful demonstration of assisted gene flow in the. Jigui yuan, li liu, yanping zhang, cheng shen, and shunduo lin 2019 molecular processes and hub genes of acropora palmata in response to thermal stress and bleaching. Stabilization of fragments to enhance asexual recruitment in acropora palmata, a threatened caribbean coral dana e. Genotypic variation influences reproductive success and thermal stress tolerance in the reef building coral, acropora palmata. Identifying acropora corals in the caribbean scuba diver. A variety of base shapes and compound shapes as primary surfaces userdefined surfaces splines, lofts, grooves, extrusions, chisels. Acropora palmata definition of acropora palmata by the free. In the 1970s and 1980s elkhorn coral, acropora palmata, declined dramatically throughout the caribbean primarily due to whiteband disease wbd. However, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. Acropora palmata can typically be found on several reefs near the bahamas, southern florida and throughout the caribbean, extending to venezuela noaa fisheries, 2014.296 1097 1013 403 635 437 915 1019 864 607 728 255 1258 1288 362 1335 20 1093 1508 226 46 88 1002 813 721 792 1042 806 1082 172 939 322 788 79 1340 935 505 751 824 745 688 580 725 740 688 345 1 386